The US peacekeeping orientation is considered in different ways
On the one hand, it is detrimental to the ability of the troops to defend their country and nation and to overall military readiness; and on the other hand, it is viewed as a necessary feature of the country and its future military activities. The government is obliged to provide the nation’s defense according to the U.S. Constitution. So, the armed forces represent one of the ways of this securing because their main aim is to protect the interests of the nation, such as: safeguarding national security of the country; protecting the population from any threats to their well-being and lives; maintaining access to foreign trade; protecting the boarders of the country, its territory, setlines, cyberspace, space and airspace; preventing any treat to East Asia, Europe and the Persian Gulf and maintaining access to resources that are essential to country’s security and its economy. Furthermore, the armed forces should assist civilian authorities to rectify catastrophic disaster response in order to reduce loss of lives and expenses (A strong national defense: the armed forces America needs and what they will cost).
Additionally there are some problems with the American’s biggest neighbor – Mexico on the border between countries. Drugs and guns on millions of dollars pass the boarder every year.
So, the US troops can solve more vital and urgent matters in their own country, than patrolling the boarders of Iraq and Afghanistan. However, the American government is keeping to the policy of providing and observing peace all over the world with the help of its troops. Among the highest priorities of the country is to increase the effectiveness of peacekeeping by United Nations for achieving humanitarian and strategy interests.
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Countries all over the world have an ability to fragile processes of peace providing in war emerged societies and to protect common people. The American programs prepared over 110000 peacekeepers for working in 29 countries all over the world. (The United States in UN peacekeeping: strengthening un peacekeeping and conflict prevention efforts). Among American provided capabilities are: expanding capacity, number and effectiveness of police contributors and troops; cooperation with fellow Security Council members and securing approval of the General Assembly for significant reforms for enabling peacekeeping.
Any peaceful intentions, such as diplomatic and intergovernmental mediations, negotiations, and communications unfortunately are not successful in rectifying significant military conflicts. So, the European Union, the USA, international organizations and non-governmental groups and individuals reduce war by implementation of unarmed diplomacy.
Today’s crisis of human history is provided by division of the world based on ideological differences anf significant development and manufacturing of weapons. The USA and the UN try to overcome the danger of nuclear war by any possible means, including policy of disarmament. This policy incorporates strengthening of multigovernmental institution for peace providing and settling disputes and considerable and increasing reduction of nations’ capabilities of creation of wars. Different exhaustive procedures and measures are taken in order to guarantee the security for all nations and freedom from war.
They are based on the following strategies:
- Immediate complete and general disarmament.
- The process of disarmament should be performed under international observation. Controlling organizations should be provided by facilities, human power in order to guarantee effectiveness and convince that taken reduction and limitations agreed. Additionally, this commission should certify that the quantity of retained armaments and forces are not exceeding then it was permitted
- The process of strengthening of UN peace force will show the nations that they have an ability to protect their interests without using armament. So, creating significant peacekeeping organization enables future decreasing of the possibility of war conflicts.
According to the UN regulations, only state-governments that are the members of the Union can be considered legitimate actors. They have an ability to issue peace and war.
Today this system faces considerable challenges, such as the increasing humanitarian military intervention in failing countries and the increasing access to powerful weapons by non-state parties (Cooper, 2012).
However, members of the Euro Union will try to make everything possible to prevent usage of force. The UN Security Council is entitled to sanction military actions against any threats to security and peace.
In 2005, the UN adopted a special initiative – the responsibility to protect (R2P) as the combination of principles, where stated the sovereignty is a responsibility
The army of the Euro Union composes from a lot of different components, such as individuals or civilians which work for the government or with peacekeeping missions in order to prevent war crimes, ethnic cleansing, genocide and crimes against humanity.
Under this initiative, the government receives help from the international community for implementation of these preventive measures.
The community has an ability to interfere if the particular government does not grant above principles. Firstly, the community will try to influence by means of coercive measures, for example, economic sanctions, but later it could apply military intervention.
Any form of such intervention applied because of obligation to guarantee protection should contain such criteria as: irremediable and serious harm to individuals; the prevention of breaking human rights as the main aim of the intervention; application any other possible measures; legitimate authority; applying any possible means for providing protection of the people; evaluation of military action and determination its consequences.
The peacekeeping mission of the EU consists on such power centers as: the official leader of the mission – the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, who is responsible for relations between member-state governments, diplomacy and politics; the senior officer of the armed services – the Force Commander, who takes responsibility over army that is deployed; and the person who performs and supervises all coordinative measures concerning procuration of supplies and logistics. The EU military forces, particularly the peacekeepers are represented by Blue Helmets, which consist on civilians, police officers and soldiers. The EU and the USA provide peace all over the world. Among the most considerable conflicts were the ones in Afghanistan and neighboring Pakistan.
After the terroristic act on September 11, 2001, the USA and its Allies performed the military intervention to the Afghanistan for liquidation the Islamic terrorist organization – Al-Qaeda and remove the Islamic terroristic regime. On 7 October, 2001 the USA together with Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Russia, Poland, France and Australia and troops from 43 countries of NATO performed Operation Enduring Freedom attacked the capital of Afghanistan (Walter, 2011). The military intervention did not take much time.
Already in December, the special institution ISAF (the International Security Assistance Force) under the leadership of NATO has been established for training Afghan National Army and observing security. However, the administration of the country’s government has been exploited by the Taliban because it was totally corrupted. On respond, in 2006 NATO increased its army in Afghanistan (Bangerter, 2010).
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At the same time, the military actions were transferred to Pakistan, where the local army had conflicts with representatives of Al-Qaeda and Taliban. The US army stated launching actions against them. Therefore, the member-state governments commenced the procedure of military removal from Afghanistan. Summarizing the Afghanistan War, thousands of civilians and soldiers (5300 US soldiers) died in this war. Military conflicts lead not only to expenses on armament, but also to the death of soldiers and civilians who lost their lives during clashes and combats.
Military peacekeeping leads to excess morbidity and mortality to common population because of devastation of assets, entitlement’s losses increasing infectious diseases and decreasing of necessary resources.
According to the statistics, on one direct death there are about four indirect deaths. So, about 200,000 people die annually.
Among the reasons of indirect deaths are such diseases as measles or dysentery, malnutrition and hunger. Usually, people die because of lack of adequate shelter and food, basic health care providing, availability of clean water and other factors that are necessary for living. When the armed conflict has a long duration, it has a destructive impact on personal’s morality and on such sides of social life as: national infrastructure and economy; well-being and psychological health; social cohesion. So, the future re-building of peace and prosperous nation becomes problematic (Indirect conflict deaths).
Countries that send military forces for peacekeeping lose millions of dollars and hundreds of human lives together with the areas where peacekeeping operations are provided. About 134,000 Iraqis civilians lost died during the war. About 2,8 million people were displaced or fled from Iraq. Additionally about 800,000-1,000,000 children lost their families. The USA lost from 176,000 to 189,000 of humanitarian workers, security forces, insurgents and journalists. Moreover, a lot of people returned with different injuries and illnesses. At the present moment, there are about 750,000 approved disability claims. The consequences of war are awful for all countries involved in the military conflict. During war conflicts, people express their opinion and try to protect their civil rights. However, this way of protection brings to millions of lost lives and significant expenses. A lot of anti-war and peace movements all over the world are struggling against military activities and their consequences, such as a breach of the main human rights: attacks on civilians, massacres, forcible relocation, execution on prisoners and etc.
Military conflicts show that human rights are very interdependent and indivisible. Destruction of common facilities, such as schools, hospitals, water cleaning stations that are necessary for normal life has a negative impact on adequate providing of freedom, education, housing and health (A United Nations priority).
Peace movements have are striking for achieving peace in the world, ending of military conflicts and minimizing violence against humanity. A lot of methods are used for these purposes, such as resistance of violence, providing of pacifism, boycotts, diplomacy, moral purchasing, and peace camps, supporting the anti-war legislation and candidates, demonstrations.
Peace movements are struggling not only against violation of human rights, but also against spending millions of dollars on military conflicts instead of spending this money for the common country needs, such as education, health providing and implementation of economic benefits to the common taxpayers.
For example, in the last decade the US government spent about $ 1,2 trillion for Afghanistan and Iraq wars (Weeks, 2011). Even soldiers, who returned from military conflicts, are struggling against present military conflicts, for example, movement of Iraq Veterans against the War. The civil opposition to any military conflict could either increase or decrease in time. For example, the opposing to Afghanistan war had increased greatly in the USA and the EU countries due to tiredness with the long period of conflicts.
Modern peaceful movements have a multifaceted and complicated character because it’s historical complexity and global character. Peace movements intend not just to complete military conflict, but to influence their governments for adoption peace regulations and relationships with the other countries.
Nowadays peace movements are struggling for justice and equality of all countries and all nations. The inequality of interests leads to different misunderstandings in international politics, and as a result, war conflicts.
A lot of people believe that the main background of any international conflict lies in the intention of big international corporations to become more global, to grasp more markets and to receive more money. People believe that due to globalization, the rich have become richer, while the poor have become poorer.
These corporations believed to have unlimited power through unregulated markets and international trade agreements. Global corporations have an influence on national legislature; sovereignty and independence of the country in order reduce cost of providing labor hiring, safety of work and standards of compensation in order to reduce total expenses and to increase profit.
However, it is rather a disputable vision because during military conflicts global corporations incur significant losses due to instability of supply, working process, transportation and realization of commodities. Less people spend money on goods and services in a war period. Governments have no ability to grant any rebates because they spend millions of dollars on ear actions.
It is more profitable to reach some trade agreements, for example, on the supply of sugar, with the third world countries for developing free trade than to fight with these countries.
Among the main problems and backgrounds of arising of any conflicts are misunderstandings between individuals, groups of people, societies about justice, its origin and its meaning.
Only by making justice actions and deeds and by taking right decisions people can avoid arising of any conflicts. It is the background of progress, brotherhood and civilization. Peaceful ideas should dominate in human affairs. Peace is an idea of a movement and development because during war conflicts, there could be no development but only destruction.
True and peaceful respect of individual to another individual is one of the reflections of justice. Justice is expressed through rights and duties, providing social stability by means of adopting international pacts, non-infringement of economic and cultural obligations. Connected twofold providences of rights and duties represent the reflection of active Justice in the modern life. Peace is a very significant stimulus to perform Justice, which means some prestige sacrifice (Pope Paul VI).
In the modern time, the procedure of peacekeeping is changing greatly. Before, it was provided with the means of negotiations, communications and mediations. International society, the European Union and the United States of America in particularly, tried to solve international conflict in a peaceful manner. Even now, before making any considerable steps, such as military actions, these countries try to influence peacefully, for example, by means of economic or civil restrictions. However, these ways of influence do not grant necessary results.
So, the European Union and The United States of America are obliges to start a war against aggressive countries who violate human rights in order to protect citizens of that country, their own citizens, provide safety of life, economic and political relationships.
Any conflict is a kind of specific reflection of views and opinions of some group of people. Such specific reflection leads to millions of direct and indirect expenses and deaths.
Among direct expenses is the cost of military equipment, hiring and training of soldiers, providing all necessities. Countries, which are involved in conflict, spend millions of dollars on preparations, performing military actions and further evacuation of soldiers instead of spending this money on their own country needs, such as providing health acre protection, enabling education, different scientific investigations and developing economy and culture.
Among indirect expenses is the cost of damaged or ruined infrastructure, health care institutions, factories and plants, educational institutions and etc.
Direct death among soldiers and civilians during war conflicts are terrible. However, the amount of indirect deaths due to illnesses and hunger are bigger in about four times in any conflict.
Moreover, the negative moral effect, such as loss of ability of providing normal life, education, health care, infrastructure, politics and economics, additionally with forced emigration influences several generations and takes a very long period of time for rectification.
Military activities and its negative consequences could not stay beyond the attention of the community. People all over the world provide pacifism, boycotts, diplomacy, moral purchasing, and peace camps, supporting the anti-war legislation and candidates, demonstrations. They want to protect lives of solders and common civilian and their ability to have better life conditions in their own countries.
Some people think that globalization and an intention of international corporations to receive more profits by using cheaper labor and non-observation of labor regulations are the main reasons of war conflicts. They think that global corporation influence their governments and international trade for obtaining more money. However, war conflicts have a considerable harmful effect on global corporations too, which is reflected in instability in all chains of manufacturing process form obtaining supplies to selling of goods, reduction of consumer’s amount and decreasing governmental benefits. One of the main reasons of formation of a conflict is a misunderstanding of what is justice, the necessity of observing rights and responsibilities not only on the international area, but also between persons.