Type 2 Diabetes Free Essay
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by symptomatic hyperglycemia, pathogenetic glucosetoxicity, lipotoxicity and many other metabolic disorders. The type can include the prevalence of insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency or dominance of the secretory defect with insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in the world. Its incidence is 85-90% of all diabetes cases. The main difference between type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes is in the presence of normal or elevated levels of endogenous insulin in the blood of those people who have type 2 diabetes. It can not for any reason be effective in reducing the concentration of glucose in blood. 65-75% of patients with type 2 diabetes experience increasing levels of insulin and C-peptide (hyperinsulinemia)(Akhund, Ali, Khan, & Shaikh, 2013).
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Type 2 diabetes is caused by a decrease of tissue sensitivity to insulin (insulin resistance). In the initial stages of the disease, it is synthesized in the normal or even higher amounts. Diet and weight of the patient in some cases help normalize carbohydrate metabolism and reduce hepatic glucose synthesis of non-carbohydrated material. Eventually, excessive insulin secretion draining β-cells of the pancreas, which makes it necessary to inject insulin. Type 2 diabetes most often develops in people older than 40 and it is generally associated with obesity. The disease progresses slowly. It is characterized by secondary symptoms; ketoacidosis develops rarely. Over time complications are developing: micro and macroangiopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, retinopathy. Type 2 diabetes is an inherited disease (Donath & Shoelsen, 2011).
Type 2 diabetes is manifested by increased blood glucose levels, decreased ability of tissues to capture and recycle glucose, and increased mobilization of alternative energy sources. The aforementioned sources are amino acids and free fatty acids. High blood glucose levels and various biological fluids glucose levels cause an increase of osmotic pressure. Furthermore, osmotic diuresis is developing (increased loss of water and salts through the kidney). It leads to dehydration of the organism and development of cations deficit of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium, anions of chlorine, phosphate and hydrogencarbonate. A patient with diabetes suffer from thirst, polyuria, weakness, fatigue, dry of mucous membranes in spite of plentiful drink water, muscle twitching, heart arrhythmia and other manifestations of deficiency of electrolytes. Moreover, elevated levels of glucose in the blood and body fluids increase non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins and lipids. Its intensity is proportional to glucose concentration. As a result, functioning of many vital proteins is impaired, and multiple pathological changes in various organs are developing (Sheen, 2009).
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is about 5-7%, and this amount is continuously increasing. By 2003, there were about 285 million patients with type 2 diabetes in the whole world. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes registered by the negotiability does not reflect the real situation. The reason is that the actual number of patients is 2-3 times higher than the registrant. According to epidemiological researches, the actual prevalence of type 2 diabetes exceeds registered prevalence by 2 times for men, and by 2.4 times for women. 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes die of cardiovascular disease. High risk of developing type 2 diabetes have those people who are overweight or obese, hypertensive patients, adults over the age of 45, persons who have relatives with type 2 diabetes, patients with an increased concentration of glucose in the blood in anamnesis, and women who have given birth children weighing 9 pounds or more. In a number of controlled clinical studies, they have demonstrated a lower risk of type 2 diabetes when taking certain medications (metformin, thiazolidinediones, acarbose, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists). Nevertheless, medicament prevention of type 2 diabetes is currently not justified until one gets the results of large-scale studies (Akhund et al., 2013).